Hattis has been in the list of Unesco’s “ World Heritage List” since 1986. The cuneiform tablets found here have also been in Unesco’s Memory of the World Register since 2001. 31.519 tablets found are still protected in İstanbul museums ( Old Eastern Pieces Museum, Archeology Museum) , Ankara Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Çorum and Boğazkale Museums. Boğazkale tablets which are Akkadian and Hittite consist not only laws, treaties and correspondances but also religious and literary documents.
Boğazköy – Hattis historical sites administered by Çorum Museum Directorate is also a National Historical Park. Boğazköy-Hattis historical site is open every day between 08.00-17.00. These hours are between 08.00-19.00 in summer.
Fees For Historical Sites
Hattis Historical Site and Yazlıkaya Open Air Temple can be visited with only one ticket which is 4 liras.
In Alacahöyük Historical Site, historical site and the museum can be visited with only one ticket which is 4 liras.
Hittites who were one of the most powerful civilization of the east like Egypt, Babylon and Mitanni , ruled most of Anatolia and North Syria until about B.C 1200. The capital was Hattis which is 80 km from Çorum. It is in Boğazkale town. The region is taken into National Historical Park status in 1988. Hattis was discovered by Charles Texier in 1834. This is not only discovery of Hattis but also it is the discovery of the forgotten Hittites. Hattis was visited by many scientists and travelers until Ernest Chantre made several drilling between 1893-1894 and found some cuneiform writing . With the support of the manager of Museum Director Osman Hamdi Bey , Theodor Makridi Bey started a large scale excavation in 1906. They understood that this place is the capital of Hittites with the support of cuneiform writing specialist Hugo Winckler. They paused the excavation due to the Second World War. It is initiated in 1952 again. It is still continued by German Archeological Institute.
The first traces of settlement goes back to Chalcolithic (Stone) Ages (BC 5000) . The permanent settlement starts at the end of Old Bronze Age (BC 3000) . The Hattis who are the natives of the region founded a city and called it Hattis.
In the BC 20th Century, Assyrian tradesmen coming from the middle Dicle Region founded a Karum (a trade colony) outside of Hattis. In these years they expanded Southeast and Middle Anatolia which were under control of Kaniş / Neşa ( Kültepe near Kayseri) This settlement known as Hattis was demolished by Hittites King Anitta from Kuşşara in BC 1700s.
As understood from the Hittites written documents, with the Hattuşili’s coming on power (BC 1665-1640) , Hattis became the capital. During Hittites Empire period, BC 14-13th centuries, the city was surrounded by a 6 km wall. In the later times, this wall was surrounded by the second wall and the city was protected more powerfully. The doors on this newly built wall are still available today. Aslanlı Kapı which has lion statues on it and Kral Kapı which has an armed king on it are the most famous ones. Yer Kapı which is in the South part of the city must have had a special role. A soil block which is 30 m. high, 250 m. tall and 80 m wide was built here. Syphinx Door is also on the walls here. Under this door, there is the only one tunnel which goes under the Hattis. It is 71 meter tall and 3 meter high.
The walls are still strong and they are from the BC 13th century. There are yards, houses, storehouses , a big reception room and ruins of a big palace were excavated in Büyükkale where there are crown buildings.
In Hittites documents , The One Thousand Gods of Hattis is often seen. These gods have definitely gained a worship place in the city. In the capital Hattusa, 31 buildings have been identified as temples so far. The Great Temples which is the largest building in Hattusa is the only one among the houses in the downtown. Due to the fact that it has two cult rooms, this temple must have been dedicated to god of thunder and Arinna’s goddess of sun.
In the uptown near the temples, some monuments which are used for official business have been axcavated in front of Büyükkale where there are crown places. The latest Hittite King Şuppiluliuma II ‘s Luvi hieroglyph and two inscriptions which are about his and Tuthaliya’s father performances are in this part of the city.
The latest excavations performed in Hattis mainly focus on the economy of Hittites Government. 11 underground stores of the city which date back to BC 13th century were found in Büyükkaya.
With the collapse of Hittites Empire in BC 1200 , the Anatolian Bronz Age ends. But, the settlement continues in the city. The new settlement beginning dates back to Early Iron Age and the Frigian influence started to be seen in BC 8th century. Settlement continued during Persian period. The traces of Hellenistic, Galata, Roman and Byzantine are also seen.
The biggest and the most impressive holy place of Hattis is Yazılıkaya Open Air Temple which is outside the city and is hidden among the rocks. More than 90 gods, goddesses, animals and imaginary creatures were drawn.
The god and goddess series form the god of storm and god of sun’s attendants who are the major gods of empire pantheon. Yazılıkaya can be identified as “ New Year’s Entertainments House”. All gods who come together in new year and spring time meet in the god of thunder’s house. In this event , it is thought that all the statues in the temples of the city might have been carried to Yazılıkaya.
In Room A of Yazılıkaya, there is a special order for the figures carved on the stones. In contrast to gods described on the left rock gods ; there goddesses described on the right rock. On he main stage, the meeting of the god of thunder, his wife god of sun and their kids are described. On the opposite wall, great King IV Tuthaliya is carved. The king was described with the god of sun’s ceremonial costume and holding curved tipped scepter. This holy place is found out to have been built by the king.
In Room B, the carvings are not like the ones in the main room. The side walls are processed with four independent figures. The twelve gods holding swords and Sword God are meant to be the underground gods. Şarruma who was the guard of Great King IV. Tuthaliya is described as clung to the king and leading him. The name of the Great King IV. Tuthaliya is written in hieroglyph.
It is 45 km in the southeast of Çorum and 160km far in the east of Ankara.
Four civilizations were brought to light in Alacahöyük which was the centrum of art and a religious place in Old Bronz and Hittites Age..
The first modern age in Alacahöyük is represented with Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk-Ottoman age. In the first floor, all parts of the tumulus were settled in Late Frigian Age. This floor consists of small houses and it is not older than BC 650.
With its temples, large buildings, private-block houses, streets, large and small water channels, the city walls, one embossed megaliths ornated with sphinxes, with the other patterned monumental gates, it forms the second layer of Hittite Empire Age.
Syphinx door which was built with andesite blocks of limestone is 10 meter wide. It is a monumental gate which links to the great temple.
Old Bronz Age BC 2500-2000) forms the third civilization floor in Alacahöyük. Old Bronz Age dynasty graves which have the most important role to understand Hatti civilization are the most important findings of this period. Intramural graves have been collected in a private place. The four sides of these graves are bricklayed and covered with a piece of wood. On this wood, skulls and legs of sacrificied animals were put. Gold, Silver, electrum, copper, bronze, iron and precious stones show that the grave
belongs to dynasty. Many gold and silver vessels forging, casting, inlay techniques, gold jewelry and fine jewelry are all results of a long process of development.
Late Chalcolithic period which forms the fourth floor is the first built civilization.
Ortaköy – Şapinuva
One of the most important cities of Hittite Government , Şapinuva, is in the southeast of Çorum.It is on the passage of Göynücek Plain and Alaca Plain.
In the Hittites Period, it was a a military and religious center due to its strategical position. In the archives consisting of 4000 cuneiform writing fragments , there are Hattice, Hurrice and Akkadian written administrative, military, religious texts and horoscopes most of which belong to Middle Hittite period.(BC 14th century) It is understood that Taşmişarri (Tuthaliya III) – Taduhepa Crown familly lived in this city. The excavations going on today brought the Building a which is called the monumental building and building B which is called the trade center building to light.