Çorum in Pro-Islamic Period
Çorum region has 7000 years of past in terms of history and culture. The region has pieces belonging to the eras of Chalcolithic (Stone), Old Bronze, Assyrian Trading Colonies, Hittite, Phrygian, Hellenistic, Galatians, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman periods
Paleolithic and Neolithic Eras
The stone tools found in the excavation in the region show that Paleolithic , Neolithic eras were seen in the area but it is not certain that the settlements belong to these eras.
Chalcolithic Period BC 5000-3000
The first settlement dates back to BC 5000 , the 4th stage of Chalcolithic Period. The pots and tools of Chalcolithic Period , which are made of copper , were found in every part of the region. The presence of ore beds quickened the technological evolution and made it possible to discover rich ethnical groups and kingdoms in the region. The pieces of this period were found in Alacahöyük, Büyük Güllücek, Boğazköy, Eskiyapar and Kuşsaray. The settlements became permenant since this period. The most important Chalcolithic settlements were found in the excavations of Alaca Büyükgüllücek village.
In this architectural period, 2,3,4 room houses, the hand-made black, grey, red ceramics are the characteristics of this era. Stamp usage became common and number of idols increased.
Bronze Age BC. 3000-1000
The most important period in Çorum is Bronze Age. Bronze which is the mixture of copper and tin gave its name to the period. This period which lasted until BC 3000-1000 is divided into three sections.
Old Bronze Age (BC 3000-2000)
The presence of many city states surrounded by walls in BC 3000 were found in the excavations around Çorum. Bronze used in the production of rare tools was not common. The first stage of Old Bronze age is also called the Copper Age. This period lasted for 500 years. The usage of Bronze became common in the end of this period. This period is called as the Old Bronze Second Period and was between BC 2500-2300. Alacahöyük is the richest city of this period. Old Bronze Third Period Anatolia (2300-2000) consisted of many city states. It has a colourful ethnical appearance and they live in tribes. The pieces found in excavations of Alacahöyük belong to Bronze Age Third Period.
Hattis is the tribe who founded city states in this period in Anatolia. Hattis is the most well-known tribe in Anatolia.
Middle Bronze Age
Middle Bronze Age is the period in which the Assyrian Trade Colonies and Old Hittite Government emerged. It is seperated from the Old Bronze age with the use of writing.
Asur Trade Colonies Age (BC 1950-1850)
Anatolia was a rich and developed settlement place in the early BC 2000. Mesopotamian who know this started to trade with Anatolia under the leadership of Assyrian State. Assyrians established Karum (Market) City near the nine Anatolian cities. The city ,established with the name of “Hattis-Karum” in Boğazköy, was one of these trade centers. These Karum cities which were taken over by Assyria gave tax to the local authorities.
These trade relations affected Anatolia culturally, economically and politically. Anatolia started to use writing in BC 2000.
Important works of this era are the cylinder seals, tablets, human and animal figurines , the animal shaped drinking vessels (riton). Pottery developed a lot by using wheel . Arts living in Anatolia was influenced by antiquities coming from Mesopotamia and it gained a new dimension and was the base of Hittites Art later.
Phrygian Period and Its Post Period
After the collapse of Hittites, 300 years of dark period was seen in Anatolia. Phrygians, who are available as “Muşki” in Assyrian sources in BC 8000, were on the history stage after establishing a state whose capital is Gordion near Kızılırmak. Phrygians' settlement centers in Çorum are Pazarlı, Boğazkale, Alacahöyük and Eskiyapar. The most significant part of this period is the usage of iron and the Iron Age started with Phrygian. Phrygian who were collapsed by Kimmers in the first half of BC 7th century continued its cultural and artistic influence until BC 330 when Alexandar the Great seized Anatolia.
Çorum was conquered by Meds in Iran and then Persians after Kimmers collapsed Phrygian State. Galats is the state which left trace the most after Hittites and Phrygians. The region was seized by Romans during the period of Roman Empire Julius Ceaser. Çorum and the nearby regions were seized by Byzantine Empire after the division of Roman Empire. The name Yankoniye were used instead of Çorum in this period.